Exosomes Treatment – What are Exosomes?

Table of Contents

What are Exosomes?

When were exosomes discovered?

Why are exosomes important?

How does exosome therapy work?

Are exosomes safe?

Giostar Mexico's licenses

What are Exosomes?

Exosomes are membrane vesicles with a diameter of 40-100 nm, a sub-fraction of extracellular vesicles that are secreted by many cell types into the extracellular space.  Adipocytes, epithelial cells, fibroblasts, neurons, astrocytes and Schwann cells are indicate to produce these type of extracellular vesicles.  Exosomes are found in cell culture supernatants and in different biological fluids, and are known to be secreted by most cell types under normal and pathological conditions.

Exosome Therapy

When were exosomes discovered?

Exosomes - extracellular membrane vesicles whose biogenesis by exocytosis of multivesicular endosomes - were discovered in 1983. Since their discovery 30 years ago, it has become clear that exosomes contribute to many aspects of physiology and disease, including intercellular communication. (2)

Why are exosomes important?

Although their biological function is still under investigation, exosomes are known to mediate cell communication, provide protective effect against or induce intra-and-extra cellular stress. Likewise, they are involved in the exchange of functional genetic information, immune response, antigen presentation and signal transduction.

How does exosome therapy work?

MSCs mainly exert their therapeutic effects through the secretion of paracrine factors to reduce inflammation, cellular injury and enhance cell and tissue repair. MSC-derived exosomes work in a similar manner and have the capacity to interact with multiple cell types, enabling the cells to recover, repair and regenerate within the tissue. Due to their ability to deliver genetic material, immunomodulatory proteins, enzymes, and growth factors directly to the recipient cells, they also represent an ideal multifunctional delivery system.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to have a great potential in the treatment of several diseases due to their differentiation and immunomodulatory capabilities and their ability to be easily cultured and manipulated. Recent investigations revealed that their therapeutic effect is largely mediated by the secretion of paracrine factors including exosomes. Furthermore, MSC-derived exosomes may provide a potent therapeutic strategy for various diseases and are promising candidates for cell-based regenerative medicine. (3)

Their potential application for diverse conditions, diseases and injuries is rich and versatile. Among other possible medical uses, scientists have identified the following promising applications:

  • Exosome therapy for knees
  • Exosome therapy for hair loss
  • Exosome therapy for diabetes
  • Exosome therapy for pain
  • Exosome therapy for osteoarthritis

Exosome Therapy Results

Are exosomes safe?

Naturally, curiosity is a valid reaction when exploring new therapy options, such as exosomes treatment. When will exosomes be FDA approved? Currently (November 2021), there are 15 clinical trials related to MSC-derived exosomes, registered on Clinicaltrials.gov. This means that the FDA is actively expecting results of exosomes trials, in order to validate their commercial use.

Giostar Stem Cell Therapy Mexico always presents our operating licenses to interested patients in any of our treatment. These licenses are authorized by the Mexican FDA-equivalent: COFEPRIS.

Giostar Mexico's COFEPRIS operational licenses per facility


COFEPRIS Official License: Progenitor or Stem Cell Bank
Folio: 18-TR-02-02-0001
COFEPRIS Official License: Provision of Progenitor or Stem Cells (transplant)
Folio: 14-TR-02-002-0008


COFEPRIS Official License: Progenitor or Stem Cell Bank
Folio: 19-TR-23-008-0002
COFEPRIS Official License: Provision of Progenitor or Stem Cells (transplant)
Folio: 19-TR-23-008-0001

Exosomes treatment is a promising field within regenerative medicine. Our scientific and medical staff is actively involved in the subject. Giostar Mexico has begun offering exosome applications as a complementary add-on to stem cell therapy.

For more information regarding exosome therapy cost, dates available and further research, feel free to contact us at 619-866-6000.


1) Zacharias E. Suntres, Milton G. Smith, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Jie Hu, Xin Zhang, Ying Wu, Hongguang Zhu, Jiping Wang, Jian Zhou and Winston Patrick Kuo (2013). Therapeutic Uses of Exosomes. Journal of Circulating Biomarkers.

2) Harding, C. V., Heuser, J. E., & Stahl, P. D. (2013). Exosomes: looking back three decades and into the future. The Journal of cell biology200(4), 367–371. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201212113.

3) Jana Janockova, Lucia Slovinska, Denisa Harvanova, Timea Spakova and Jan Rosocha. New therapeutic approaches of mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosomes. Journal of Biomedical Science. (2021) 28:39, 1-26.

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